More recently, with the automotive market getting introduced to several EV models, the need for charging them within cities, suburbs, and highways, has driven power electronics engineers towards innovative ideas to solve the future charging infrastructure problem. Plugged charging topologies have been investigated thoroughly in recent years, based on existing SAE J1772 standards for AC and DC charging, ranging from 1.5 kW-to-50 kW-to120 kW. On the other hand, in the last 5 years or so, power supply and charger manufacturing companies have been seriously started looking at wireless charging as an attractive solution, to avoid physical drawbacks of wired or plugged versions of charging. The high-level goals of this talk is to focus on introducing advanced power electronics solutions for rapid charging using wireless power transfer. Both inductive power transfer (IPT) as well as capacitive power transfer (CPT, electrostatic) techniques of wireless charging will be introduced. The major market for IPT-based wireless charging is the mass transit industry, such as electric trains, buses, and trams, in the range of 100-250 kW, while both IPT and CPT could be used for charging small utility-grade EVs (golf carts/security vehicles), in smaller sizes of 1.0 kW.
Critical issues, such as IPT transfer coil design, CPT capacitor dielectric medium/transfer plate designs, and converter topologies, will be discussed. Detailed results of finite element analysis (FEA) designs for energizer and pick-up coils will be presented. Specific emphasis is placed on reducing the effect of skin effect and proximity effect for both in-motion and static charging (for varied switching frequencies and air-gap lengths). An important aspect that will also be covered is the design of charger topologies on the secondary side of the IPT or CPT system. The challenge is to come up with 1-stage power conversion techniques, including high-frequency (HF) AC/DC rectification and DC/DC charger functionalities, with conversion efficiencies of 98% or higher.
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